Good Integration Practices

Conventions for Python test discovery

pytest implements the following standard test discovery:

  • If no arguments are specified then collection starts from testpaths (if configured) or the current directory. Alternatively, command line arguments can be used in any combination of directories, file names or node ids.
  • recurse into directories, unless they match norecursedirs
  • test_*.py or *_test.py files, imported by their test package name.
  • Test prefixed test classes (without an __init__ method)
  • test_ prefixed test functions or methods are test items

For examples of how to customize your test discovery Changing standard (Python) test discovery.

Within Python modules, pytest also discovers tests using the standard unittest.TestCase subclassing technique.

Choosing a test layout / import rules

pytest supports two common test layouts:

  • putting tests into an extra directory outside your actual application code, useful if you have many functional tests or for other reasons want to keep tests separate from actual application code (often a good idea):

    setup.py   # your setuptools Python package metadata
    mypkg/
        __init__.py
        appmodule.py
    tests/
        test_app.py
        ...
    
  • inlining test directories into your application package, useful if you have direct relation between (unit-)test and application modules and want to distribute your tests along with your application:

    setup.py   # your setuptools Python package metadata
    mypkg/
        __init__.py
        appmodule.py
        ...
        test/
            test_app.py
            ...
    

Important notes relating to both schemes:

  • make sure that “mypkg” is importable, for example by typing once:

    pip install -e .   # install package using setup.py in editable mode
    
  • avoid “__init__.py” files in your test directories. This way your tests can run easily against an installed version of mypkg, independently from the installed package if it contains the tests or not.

  • With inlined tests you might put __init__.py into test directories and make them installable as part of your application. Using the py.test --pyargs mypkg invocation pytest will discover where mypkg is installed and collect tests from there. With the “external” test you can still distribute tests but they will not be installed or become importable.

Typically you can run tests by pointing to test directories or modules:

py.test tests/test_app.py       # for external test dirs
py.test mypkg/test/test_app.py  # for inlined test dirs
py.test mypkg                   # run tests in all below test directories
py.test                         # run all tests below current dir
...

Because of the above editable install mode you can change your source code (both tests and the app) and rerun tests at will. Once you are done with your work, you can use tox to make sure that the package is really correct and tests pass in all required configurations.

Note

You can use Python3 namespace packages (PEP420) for your application but pytest will still perform test package name discovery based on the presence of __init__.py files. If you use one of the two recommended file system layouts above but leave away the __init__.py files from your directories it should just work on Python3.3 and above. From “inlined tests”, however, you will need to use absolute imports for getting at your application code.

Note

If pytest finds a “a/b/test_module.py” test file while recursing into the filesystem it determines the import name as follows:

  • determine basedir: this is the first “upward” (towards the root) directory not containing an __init__.py. If e.g. both a and b contain an __init__.py file then the parent directory of a will become the basedir.
  • perform sys.path.insert(0, basedir) to make the test module importable under the fully qualified import name.
  • import a.b.test_module where the path is determined by converting path separators / into ”.” characters. This means you must follow the convention of having directory and file names map directly to the import names.

The reason for this somewhat evolved importing technique is that in larger projects multiple test modules might import from each other and thus deriving a canonical import name helps to avoid surprises such as a test modules getting imported twice.

Tox

For development, we recommend to use virtualenv environments and pip for installing your application and any dependencies as well as the pytest package itself. This ensures your code and dependencies are isolated from the system Python installation.

If you frequently release code and want to make sure that your actual package passes all tests you may want to look into tox, the virtualenv test automation tool and its pytest support. Tox helps you to setup virtualenv environments with pre-defined dependencies and then executing a pre-configured test command with options. It will run tests against the installed package and not against your source code checkout, helping to detect packaging glitches.

Continuous integration services such as Jenkins can make use of the --junitxml=PATH option to create a JUnitXML file and generate reports.

Integrating with setuptools / python setup.py test / pytest-runner

You can integrate test runs into your setuptools based project with the pytest-runner plugin.

Add this to setup.py file:

from setuptools import setup

setup(
    #...,
    setup_requires=['pytest-runner', ...],
    tests_require=['pytest', ...],
    #...,
)

And create an alias into setup.cfg file:

[aliases]
test=pytest

If you now type:

python setup.py test

this will execute your tests using pytest-runner. As this is a standalone version of pytest no prior installation whatsoever is required for calling the test command. You can also pass additional arguments to py.test such as your test directory or other options using --addopts.

Manual Integration

If for some reason you don’t want/can’t use pytest-runner, you can write your own setuptools Test command for invoking pytest.

import sys

from setuptools.command.test import test as TestCommand


class PyTest(TestCommand):
    user_options = [('pytest-args=', 'a', "Arguments to pass to py.test")]

    def initialize_options(self):
        TestCommand.initialize_options(self)
        self.pytest_args = []

    def run_tests(self):
        #import here, cause outside the eggs aren't loaded
        import pytest
        errno = pytest.main(self.pytest_args)
        sys.exit(errno)


setup(
    #...,
    tests_require=['pytest'],
    cmdclass = {'test': PyTest},
    )

Now if you run:

python setup.py test

this will download pytest if needed and then run your tests as you would expect it to. You can pass a single string of arguments using the --pytest-args or -a command-line option. For example:

python setup.py test -a "--durations=5"

is equivalent to running py.test --durations=5.

(deprecated) Create a pytest standalone script

Deprecated since version 2.8.

Note

genscript has been deprecated because:

  • It cannot support plugins, rendering its usefulness extremely limited;
  • Tooling has become much better since genscript was introduced;
  • It is possible to build a zipped pytest application without the shortcomings above.

There’s no planned version in which this command will be removed at the moment of this writing, but its use is discouraged for new applications.

If you are a maintainer or application developer and want people who don’t deal with python much to easily run tests you may generate a standalone pytest script:

py.test --genscript=runtests.py

This generates a runtests.py script which is a fully functional basic pytest script, running unchanged under Python2 and Python3. You can tell people to download the script and then e.g. run it like this:

python runtests.py